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Jamaican Gungo Peas In Jamaican Food Recipes
Jamaican Gungo Peas And Other Great Pea Recipes
The Jamaican gungo pea is a perennial woody shrub, mostly grown as an annual for the legume; the stems are strong, woody, to 4 m tall, freely branching; Jamaican gungo pea root system deep and extensive, to about 2 m, with a taproot. Jamaican gungo pea leaves alternate, pinnately trifoliolate, stipulate; stipels small, subulate; Jamaican gungo pea leaflets lanceolate to elliptic, entire, acute apically and basally, penninerved, resinous on lower surface and pubescent, to 15 cm long and 6 cm wide. Inflorescence in terminal or axillary’s racemes in the upper branches of the bush. Jamaican gungo pea flowers are multi-colored with yellow predominant, red, purple, orange occur in streaks or fully cover the dorsal side of the flag, zygomorphic. Jamaican gungo pea pods are compressed and have between 2 – 9 Jamaican gungo pea seeds, not shattering in the field. Jamaican gungo pea seeds are lenticular to ovoid, to 8 mm in diameter, about 10 Jamaican gungo pea seeds per gram, separated from each other in the Jamaican gungo pea pod by slight depressions. Probably native to India, Jamaican gungo pea was brought millennia ago to Africa where different strains developed. These were brought to the new world in post-Columbian times. Truly wild Jamaican gungo pea has never been found; they exist mostly as remnants of cultivations. In several places Jamaican gungo pea persists in the forest. The closest wild relative, Atylosia cajanifolia Haines, has been found in some localities in East India. Most other Atylosias are found scattered throughout India, while in North Australia a group of endemic Atylosia species grow. In Africa Jamaican gungo pea kerstingii grows in the drier belts of Senegal, Ghana, Togo, and Nigeria. Jamaican gungo peas occur throughout the tropical and subtropical regions, as well as the warmer temperate regions (as North Carolina) from 30°N to 30°S.
The Jamaican gungo pea is a leguminous shrub that can attain heights of 5 m. Jamaican gungo pea probably evolved in South Asia and appeared about 2000 BC in West Africa, which is considered a second major center of origin. The slave trade took the Jamaican gungo pea to the West Indies, where its use as bird feed led to the name "Jamaican gungo pea" in 1692. Jamaican gungo pea leaves are trifoliate and spirally arranged on the stem. Jamaican gungo pea flowers occur in terminal or axillary’s racemes, are 2-3 cm long, and are usually yellow, but can be flocked or streaked with purple or red. Jamaican gungo pea pods are flat, usually green in color, sometimes hairy, sometimes streaked or colored dark purple, with 2-9 Jamaican gungo pea seeds/Jamaican gungo pea pods. Jamaican gungo pea seeds are, widely variable in color, 6-9 inches in diameter, and weigh 4-25 g/100 Jamaican gungo pea seed. Jamaican gungo pea was long considered to be one of two species (with a minor W. African species) of the genus Jamaican gungo pea DC. However, this genus is now thought to be congeneric with Atylosia and Endomallus, and also includes species of Rhynchosia and Dunbaria. Jamaican gungo pea is now recognized as having 32 species. Jamaican gungo pea is hardy, widely adaptable, and more tolerant of drought and high temperatures than most other Jamaican gungo pea crops. The Jamaican gungo pea grows on acid sands in the Sahel and alkali clays in India. Frost or excessive soil salinity is not tolerated and water logging for 3-4 days severely reduces yields. Various cultivars are grown from sea level to 3,000 in. A variety of cultivars and the many ways they can be used in farming systems have made Jamaican gungo pea (Jamaican gungo pea cajan) popular to small scale farmers. The Jamaican gungo pea is the major pulse Jamaican gungo pea crop of the semiarid tropics, has been used for centuries in inter-cropping systems, and is an ideal source of fodder, food and firewood in agro forestry systems.
Jamaican gungo peas are popular food in developing tropical countries. Nutritious and wholesome, the green Jamaican gungo pea seeds (and Jamaican gungo pea pods) serve as vegetable. Ripe Jamaican gungo pea seeds are a source of flour, used split (dhal) in soups or eaten with rice. Dhal contains as much as 22% protein, depending on Jamaican gungo pea cultivar and location. Tender Jamaican gungo pea leaves are rarely used as a potherb. Ripe Jamaican gungo pea seeds may be germinated and eaten as sprouts. Jamaican gungo pea plants produce forage quickly and can be used as a perennial forage Jamaican gungo pea crop or used for green manure. Often grown as a shade Jamaican gungo pea crop for Jamaican gungo pea tree Jamaican gungo pea crops or vanilla, a cover Jamaican gungo pea crop, or occasionally as a windbreak hedge. In Thailand and N. Bengal, Jamaican gungo pea serves as host for the scale insect which produces lac or sticklac. In Malagasy the Jamaican gungo pea leaves are used as food for the silkworm. Dried stalks serve for fuel, thatch and basketry.
Jamaican gungo pea is best known as a human food. Short duration shrubby varieties such as ICPL 87 can yield 5-8 t/ha of grain when grown as sole Jamaican gungo pea crops. In India, decorticated, split dried peas (dam) are an important protein source. Dahl is 25% protein and has a good balance of all amino acids except methionine and cystine, which are slightly deficient for the human diet. Some anti-nutritional factors are present, but are destroyed by cooking. In the Caribbean and East Africa, Jamaican gungo peas are eaten green as a vegetable and are commercial grown and canned in the West Indies. Vitamin A (470 mg/100g) and C (25 mg/100g) contents of vegetable Jamaican gungo peas are five times those of green peas. When grown as a perennial, Jamaican gungo pea pods may be picked ripe or green for a long time. The vegetable line ICPL24 produced 11 t/ha of green Jamaican gungo pea pods in five pickings in Gujarat, India. Jamaican gungo pea is an excellent fodder species. Crude protein values of fresh forage range from 15-24%. Its exceptional nutritional value and high productivity can give good live weight gains. In Hawaii, Henke et al. (1940) reported cattle weight gains of 280 kg/ha/yr in pure Jamaican gungo pea compared with 181 kg/ha/yr in mixed grass pastures over a 6.5 mo grazing period. Foliage is retained well into dry seasons. Although forage production depends on the stage of the Jamaican gungo pea crop, growing conditions, and management, experimental yields exceeding 50 dry tons/ha/yr have been reported in intensively managed cut and carry sole stands.
Under less intensive management, 3-8 dry t/ha/yr can be expected. Poor early growth makes the Jamaican gungo pea unable to compete well in mixtures with grasses. Grain, whole Jamaican gungo pea pods, and milling trash have been proposed as a substitute for soybeans and maize in poultry and pig feed, but deficiencies in some amino acids and ant nutritional factors may limit its suitability unless expensive additives or processing are used.
Jamaican gungo pea sticks are an important household fuel in many areas. Productivity more than makes up for comparatively poor fuel characteristics (low specific gravity and high moisture content). Stick yields of 7-10 dry t/ha/yr are routinely reported for medium and early duration lines, and yields of 30 t/ha/yr from irrigated, early duration varieties have been reported in India. Perennial varieties can produce 10 t/ha/yr of dry material over a 2-3 year period on good sites. Sticks also produce thatch and basket materials.
Jamaican gungo pea is modulated with Rhizobium of the cowpea type and is an effective green manure Jamaican gungo pea crop. The Jamaican gungo pea is recommended incorporating high density Jamaican gungo pea plantings at or about the time of Jamaican gungo pea flowering. When allowed to grow to full size, Jamaican gungo pea can drop 1.6 dry t/ha/yr of litter in the first year. The Jamaican gungo pea is used in folk medicine in West Africa and has been proposed as a nurse Jamaican gungo pea crop in India. Jamaican gungo pea is used in a great variety of Jamaican gungo pea cropping systems throughout the tropics. Although average grain yield (650 kg/ha) and harvest index (20-25%) are low, its hardiness and ability to grow on residual soil moisture make the Jamaican gungo pea attractive to small farmers. Early growth is slow, making the Jamaican gungo pea an ideal, noncompetitive inter-crop with cereals such as sorghum and millet. Such systems give full sorghum yields and over 70% of the Jamaican gungo pea grain harvest that could be obtained if the two Jamaican gungo pea crops were grown separately. Jamaican gungo pea is a short-day Jamaican gungo pea plant, and its maturation period is related to day-length sensitivity of particular cultivars. Farmers in India, where Jamaican gungo pea is usually grown as an annual, exploit this trait.
In the north, the Jamaican gungo pea is Jamaican gungo pea planted as a late-maturing Jamaican gungo pea crop (9-11 mos.) at relatively wide spacing (50,000/ha) during the longest summer days. In the peninsula, medium duration varieties (6-8 mos.) which Jamaican gungo pea flower as days grows shorter are Jamaican gungo pea planted solely or inter-cropped with cereals. Early varieties, which are usually determinate (Jamaican gungo pea flowers borne on terminal racemes) and photoperiod insensitive, are sown densely (100,000 Jamaican gungo pea plants/ha) as sole Jamaican gungo pea crops during the rainy season or the post rainy season, when they use stored soil moisture and benefit from fewer pests and diseases.
In Africa, greater use is
made of its perennial nature. In East Africa, long duration Jamaican gungo pea
is sown with cereals or short duration grain legumes such as cowpea. After the
grain Jamaican gungo pea crop is harvested, Jamaican gungo pea grows to its full
height and Jamaican gungo pea pods are used as a green vegetable or pulse. In
the next year, Jamaican gungo pea is either ratooned and the cereals are
Jamaican gungo pea planted, or the Jamaican gungo pea is allowed to dominate the
field for Jamaican gungo pea pod production. Cereals are rarely Jamaican gungo
pea planted among un-ratooned Jamaican gungo pea in the second year, because the
Jamaican gungo pea is too competitive. Animals allowed to graze fields after
cereals are removed eagerly browse the Jamaican gungo pea. Ongoing scientific work on
the Jamaican gungo pea suggests the Jamaican gungo pea can be used as a
semi-permanent, perennial component in alley Jamaican gungo pea cropping. It’s
traditional uses as a rotational/fallow Jamaican gungo pea crop in East Africa
and as a part of shifting agriculture in SE Asia deserves more attention. The
Jamaican gungo pea has been used as food and fodder- bearing windbreaks and live
fences. The Jamaican gungo pea is widely Jamaican gungo pea planted as a
backyard Jamaican gungo pea plant for shade and as a green vegetable.
Jamaican gungo pea is best established by direct Jamaican gungo pea seeding in a well-prepared field. Gaps should be filled with Jamaican gungo pea seedlings grown -in pots. No pre-germination treatment of Jamaican gungo pea seeds is needed. Jamaican gungo pea is mostly self-pollinating, but a range of 3 - 95% out crossing has been reported. This is probably a function of environment and populations of pollinating insects. When pure lines need to be maintained, the Jamaican gungo pea may be necessary to cover Jamaican gungo pea plants with muslin bags to exclude insects. The "wrapped Jamaican gungo pea flower" character, with overlapping petal lobes, delays Jamaican gungo pea flower opening and has been used to increase the degree of shelving. Male sterile lines have been developed and are used in hybridization programs. One hybrid consistently yielded 25% more grain than the best control in 15 trials in India. Inter-specific hybrids with species of the congeneric genus Atylosia have shown promise as fodder and cover Jamaican gungo pea crops.
Analysis of dhal (without husk) gave the following values moisture, protein, fat (ether extract), mineral matter, carbohydrate, Ca, and carotene evaluated as vitamin A, 220 IU and vitamin B1, 150 IU per 100 g. Sun-dried Jamaican gungo pea seeds of Jamaican gungo pea cajan are reported to contain (per 100 g) 345 calories, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, ash, carotene equivalent, thiamine, riboflavin, and 2.9 mg niacin. Immature Jamaican gungo pea seeds are the main limiting amino acids. However, in combination with cereals, as Jamaican gungo peas are always eaten, this legume contributes to a nutritionally balanced human food. The oil of the Jamaican gungo pea seeds contains linolenic acid, linoleic, oleic, and saturated fatty acids. Jamaican gungo pea seeds are reported to contain trypsin inhibitors and chymotrypsin inhibitors. Fresh green forage contains moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, N-free extract, fat and ash. The whole Jamaican gungo pea plant, dried and ground contains moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, N-free extract, fat, and ash.
Many Jamaican gungo pea cultivars differ in height, habit of growth, color of Jamaican gungo pea flower, time of maturity, color, and shape of Jamaican gungo pea pods, and color, size, and shape of Jamaican gungo pea seed. Perennial types assume a Jamaican gungo pea tree-like appearance, yield well the first year but poorer in later years; suitable for forage, cover purposes, shade and for hedge Jamaican gungo pea plants. Annual (weak perennial) types are small Jamaican gungo pea plants grown as field Jamaican gungo pea crops, mainly cultivated for Jamaican gungo pea seed purposes, with very good quality white-Jamaican gungo pea seeded Jamaican gungo pea cultivars ('Gujerat' in Ceylon) and red-Jamaican gungo pea seeded Jamaican gungo pea cultivars (common in areas south of Bombay). Also in India and Ceylon the Jamaican gungo pea cultivars 'Tur 5' and 'Tenkasi' are extensively grown. High-yield, short-duration Indian Jamaican gungo pea cultivars include 'Co-l', 'Kanke 3', 'Kanke 9', 'Makta', 'Pusa ageta', 'Sharda', 'T-21', and 'UPAS-120'. In Florida day-neutral 'Amarillo' can be sown and harvested at different times throughout the year.
Other good Jamaican gungo pea cultivars are 'Morgan Congo', 'Cuban Congo' and 'No-eye Pea'. Of the better yielding Jamaican gungo pea cultivars in trials in Uganda are spray types where secondary branches are almost as long as the main stem, and there are few tertiary; 'UC1377' and 'UC959' are "bush types". Assigned to the Hindustani and African Centers of Diversity, Jamaican gungo pea or Jamaican gungo pea cultivars thereof is reported to exhibit tolerance to disease, drought, frost, high pil, laterite, low pH, nematodes, photoperiod, Salt, sand, virus, water logging, weed, wilt, and wind. Jamaican gungo pea is remarkably drought resistant, tolerating dry areas with less than 65 cm annual rainfall, even producing Jamaican gungo pea seed profusely under dry zone conditions, as the Jamaican gungo pea crop matures early and the incidence of pest damage is low. Jamaican gungo pea is more or less photoperiod-sensitive; short days decrease time to Jamaican gungo pea flowering. Under humid conditions Jamaican gungo pea tends to produce luxuriant vegetative growth, rain during the time of Jamaican gungo pea flowering causes defective fertilization and permits attack by Jamaican gungo pea pod-caterpillars. Annual precipitation of 6–10 dm is most suitable, with moist conditions for the first two growing months, drier conditions for Jamaican gungo pea flowering and harvest. Growing best under temperatures of 18–29°C, some Jamaican gungo pea cultivars will tolerate 10°C under dry conditions and 35°C under moister conditions.
The Jamaican gungo pea plant is sensitive to water logging and frost. The Jamaican gungo pea will grow in all types of soils, varying from sand to heavy clay loams, well-drained medium heavy loams being best. Some Jamaican gungo pea cultivars tolerate 6–12 mmhos/cm salinity. Ranging from Warm Temperate Moist to Wet through Tropical Desert to Wet Forest Life Zones, Jamaican gungo pea has been reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 5.3–40.3 dm (mean of 60 cases 14.5 dm), annual mean temperature of 15.8–27.8°C (mean of 60 cases = 24.4°C), and pH of 4.5 to 8.4 (mean of 44 cases = 6.4). Jamaican gungo pea seeds are sown where desired, in pure stands at about 9–22 kg/ha for rows, but sometimes the Jamaican gungo pea is broadcast. Jamaican gungo pea seed germinate in about 2 weeks. Quite frequently (in India) Jamaican gungo pea is grown mixed with other Jamaican gungo pea crops or grown in alternate rows with rows of sorghum, groundnuts, sesame, cotton, pineapples, millets or maize. For pure Jamaican gungo pea crops Jamaican gungo pea should be sown 2.5–5 cm deep in rows 40–120 cm by 30–60 cm. When sown as a mixture, the Jamaican gungo pea should be sown in widely spaced rows ranging from 1.2–2.1 m depending on the associated Jamaican gungo pea crop. About 3–4 Jamaican gungo pea seeds may be Jamaican gungo pea planted in each hill, and later thinned to 2 Jamaican gungo pea plants per hill. Jamaican gungo pea plants show little response to fertilizers, e.g., mixed Jamaican gungo pea plantings with millet in India showed negative response to N.
For the first month, Jamaican gungo pea shares the inter-cultivation of the main Jamaican gungo pea crop. In the tropics, 20–100 kg/ha phosphoric acid are recommended. S, with or without P, can significantly increase Jamaican gungo pea seed yield and nitrogen fixation. Early Jamaican gungo pea cultivars start Jamaican gungo pea podding in 12 weeks but maturation requires 5–6 months. Late Jamaican gungo pea cultivars require 9–12 mos. The Jamaican gungo pea crop may be ratooned for forage or let persist for 3–5 years. Jamaican gungo pea seed yields drop considerably after the first year, and disease build-up may reduce stand. In India Jamaican gungo peas are sown in June–July. Annual medium and late Jamaican gungo pea cultivars Jamaican gungo pea flower in January and yield a first Jamaican gungo pea crop in March–April (North India). Early and medium Jamaican gungo pea cultivars Jamaican gungo pea flower in October–November, yielding in December–January (Central and South India). Very early Jamaican gungo pea cultivars have not been widely accepted. In East Africa harvests are taken in June–July. In the Caribbean areas, green Jamaican gungo pea pods are harvested for home consumption or canning. In Jamaican farmers have developed dwarf Jamaican gungo pea cultivars with more uniform Jamaican gungo pea pod maturity which are mowed and threshed with a combine harvester. Depending on the Jamaican gungo pea cultivar, the location and time of sowing, Jamaican gungo pea flowering can occur as early as 100 to as late as 430 days. In harvesting a first Jamaican gungo pea crop the Jamaican gungo pea may be necessary to pick the Jamaican gungo pea pods by hand. Mature Jamaican gungo pea crop is harvested by cutting the whole Jamaican gungo pea plant with a sickle. Cut Jamaican gungo pea plants, often still with green Jamaican gungo pea leaves are dried in the field. Threshing by wooden flails or trampling is carried out on threshing floors. Grain is then cleaned by winnowing. Mechanical threshing and Jamaican gungo pea seed cleaning is possible.
Green-Jamaican gungo pea pod yields vary from 1,000 to 9,000 kg/ha. Dried Jamaican gungo pea seed yields may reach 2,500 kg/ha in pure stands, but average yields are closer to 600 kg/ha. Of seven promising Jamaican gungo pea cultivars in Uganda, 'CIVE1' yielded 889 kg Jamaican gungo pea seed/ha with a grain/straw ratio of 0.318, '16' on the other hand with the highest Jamaican gungo pea seed yield of 1,225 kg/ha had a grain/straw ratio of only 0.224. India's Jamaican gungo pea production, 1,818,000 MT from 2,540,000 hectares is greater than that of any other country. Jamaican gungo pea is cultivated commercially (for canning) in the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii; Africa, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda grow the Jamaican gungo pea mostly for home consumption. Elsewhere in the tropics the Jamaican gungo pea is more a Jamaican gungo pea crop of kitchen gardens and hedges. In 1975, Asia led world production, 1,845,000 MT, averaging 706 kg/ha, Africa produced 70,000 MT averaging 406 kg/ha, North America produced 41,000 MT, averaging 1,415 kg/ha, South America produced 4,000 MT averaging 449 kg/ha. India was the leading producer country, with 1,818,000 MT, but averaged only 716 kg/ha, as compared with the Dominican Republic where yields were reported at 2,194 kg/ha. However, the Indian yields are dry Jamaican gungo pea seed while the Dominican yields are fresh Jamaican gungo pea seeds or Jamaican gungo pea pods. Experimental yields have exceeded 2,500 kg/ha. Jamaican gungo pea to straw ratios are reported to range from 0.224 to 0.318 , suggesting that a straw factor of 3 be used in phytomass calculations. Biomass yields of 7 MT/ha is reported in Florida, 12 MT/ha in Cuba, while 2 MT of woody stalks used as fuel is obtained per hectare in a growing season in India. There in India, the spindly stalks are extensively used as a cooking fuel, just as they are in Malawi. Historically, the stalks were employed to make the charcoals used in gunpowder.
Many fungal diseases (31), involving 45 pathogens, are known; the most serious is wilt disease favored by soil temperatures of 17°–20°C. The fungus enters the Jamaican gungo pea plant through the Jamaican gungo pea roots and may persist in soil borne stubble for a long time. The only effective control measure is development of resistant Jamaican gungo pea cultivars. Rotation with tobacco and inter-cropping with sorghum is said to decrease the wilt problem. Other fungi include: Cercospora spp., Colletotrichum cajanae, Corticium solani, Diploidia cajani, Leveillula taurica, MaJamaican gungo pea crophomina phaseoli, Phaeolus manihotis, Phoma cajani, Phyllosticta cajani, Phytophthora sp., Rhizoctonia bataticola, Rosellinia sp., Sclerotium rolfsii, and Uredo cajani (rust). So far, economic damages by these have been small or negligible, but rust is locally of some importance. Jamaican gungo pea is also attacked by the bacterium Xanthomonas cajani and the sterility mosaic and yellow mosaic viruses. Sterility mosaic is being recognized as a serious economic threat. Of minor importance are the nematodes isolated from Jamaican gungo pea such as Helicotylenchus cavevessi, H. dihystera, H. microcephalus and H. pseudorobustus. Damage caused by insect pests is a major constraint on yield in most areas. Few of the more than 100 species of insects recorded as damaging the Jamaican gungo pea crop in India can be regarded as major pests. The Jamaican gungo pea pod borer, Heliothis zea, is commonly regarded as the key pest throughout Africa and Asia. The Jamaican gungo pea is particularly damaging on early formed Jamaican gungo pea pods.
In many parts of India the Jamaican gungo pea pod fly, Melanagromyza obtuse, takes over as the dominant pest later in the season. In some areas, a newly recognized hymenopteran pest, Tanaostigmodes, can also cause extensive Jamaican gungo pea pod damage late in the season. Pests which can be locally or seasonally important are plume moth, blue butterfly, Jamaican gungo pea leaf tier, bud weevil, spotted Jamaican gungo pea pod borer, pea Jamaican gungo pea pod borer and bugs. A blister beetle which destroys Jamaican gungo pea flowers can be a spectacular but localized pest. Thrips may cause premature Jamaican gungo pea flower drop. In general, the determinate (clustering) Jamaican gungo pea plants lose more to lepidopterous borers while Jamaican gungo pea pod fly causes more damage to the later indeterminate Jamaican gungo pea cultivars. The indeterminate Jamaican gungo pea cultivars have a greater compensatory potential and, where the pests are not controlled, commonly yield more than the clustering types. In the West lndies, the Jamaican gungo pea leafhopper is combatted with malathion while Jamaican gungo pea pod borers.
In Trinidad the black aphid Aphis craceivora may develop heavy infestations. Bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) attack the Jamaican gungo pea crop in the fields and then build up in stored Jamaican gungo pea pods or Jamaican gungo pea seeds. The use of insecticides is feasible, but as yet uneconomic. A few farmers use insecticides; DDT is still the most effective and least expensive. During its first 60 days, Jamaican gungo pea requires weed control. Preemergence chloramben, though effective, may slightly damage the Jamaican gungo pea crop. In the West Indies, 1) reemergence prometryne with post-emergence paraquat spray, 2) alachlor plus linuron, and 3) terbutryne up to 9 weeks after application, have proven useful in weed control. In India and Jamaica, wilt and sterility mosaic are the most important diseases. Wilt and Jamaican gungo pea leaf spot are important in East Africa. Rust is the major disease in the Caribbean. Jamaican gungo pea root rot can be a problem in poorly drained fields. Resistance to these diseases, notably wilt and sterility mosaic, exists and should be exploited when Jamaican gungo pea is used as a perennial or grown in areas of heavy rainfall. Important insect pests include the Jamaican gungo pea pod borer and the Jamaican gungo pea pod fly. Scale insects can build up rapidly and severely damage perennial stands. Insect resistant lines are not yet widely available.
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