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Jamaican Food Recipes And Jamaican Pomegranate
Pomegranate Recipes How To Prepare Them
The Jamaican pomegranate is a shrub, usually with multiple stems, that commonly grows 6-15 feet tall. The slender branches start out upright then droop gracefully. Un-pruned shrubs have a decidedly weeping or fountain shaped habit. The deciduous Jamaican pomegranate leaves are shiny and about 3 inches long. Jamaican pomegranates have beautiful orange-red trumpet shaped Jamaican pomegranate flowers with ruffled petals. The Jamaican pomegranate flowers are about 2 in (5 cm) long, often double, and are produced over a long period in summer. The Jamaican pomegranate fruit is globose, 2-3 in (5-7.6 cm) in diameter, and shiny reddish or yellowish green when mature. The Jamaican pomegranate has a persistent calyx opposite the stem end that looks like a little crown. The Jamaican pomegranate fruit is technically a berry. The Jamaican pomegranate is filled with crunchy Jamaican pomegranate seeds each of which is encased in a juicy, somewhat acidic pulp that is itself enclosed in a membranous skin. The Jamaican pomegranate seeds, juice and pulp are eaten, but the yellowish membrane is too astringent. The glossy, evergreen Jamaican pomegranate leaves are short stemmed, oblong and lanceolate. The showy Jamaican pomegranate flowers are orange-red while the Jamaican pomegranate fruit is globose, 3 - 4" in diameter and has a tough leathery skin. Jamaican pomegranate has a calyx shaped like a crown. The sweet-sour, edible Jamaican pomegranate fruit with numerous Jamaican pomegranate seeds (more than 50% of the weight of the Jamaican pomegranate fruit), can be eaten out of hand, used in jelly or made into juice.
There are several Jamaican pomegranate cultivars selected just for the showy Jamaican pomegranate flowers. 'Chico' (dwarf carnation Jamaican pomegranate) can be kept under 2 ft (0.6 m) tall and produces double Jamaican pomegranate flowers over an extended season, but no Jamaican pomegranate fruit. 'Legrellei' is a dense shrub, 6-8 ft (1.8-2.4 m) tall, with double creamy white Jamaican pomegranate flowers with pink stripes and no Jamaican pomegranate fruit. 'Nochi Shibari' has double dark red Jamaican pomegranate flowers. 'Nana' (dwarf Jamaican pomegranate) is 1-3 ft (0.3-0.9 m) tall with orange-red single Jamaican pomegranate flowers. 'Tayosho' has light apricot colored Jamaican pomegranate flowers. 'Alba Plena' has double white Jamaican pomegranate flowers. Popular Jamaican pomegranate cultivars selected for Jamaican pomegranate fruit are 'Wonderful' which has double orange-red Jamaican pomegranate flowers and large, 5 in (13 cm) Jamaican pomegranate fruits; 'Paper Shell', which has a very thin outer skin; 'Fleishman' which is said to have the sweetest Jamaican pomegranate fruits; and 'King', with double red Jamaican pomegranate flowers and large, sweet Jamaican pomegranate fruits. The Jamaican pomegranate is said that there are Jamaican pomegranate seedless varieties, sweeter varieties and larger varieties in cultivation in the Middle East and India, but for some reason these are not available in the West.
In a Homeric Hymn, Persephone, daughter of Ceres, the Goddess of growth and abundance, was forced to spend four months of each year in the underworld, because Pluto forced her to eat four Jamaican pomegranate seeds of the Jamaican pomegranate, when she was held captive in the underworld. The period of time in which this would take place is during winter, with spring heralding he return to the world aboveground. Perhaps this is why this shrub has traditionally been considered a symbol of beauty and fertility in Europe.
The Jamaican pomegranate is native from Iran to the Himalayas in northern India and was cultivated and naturalized over the whole Mediterranean region since ancient times. The Jamaican pomegranate is widely cultivated throughout India and the drier parts of Southeast Asia, Malaya, the East Indies and tropical Africa. The Jamaican pomegranate tree was introduced into California by Spanish settlers in 1769. In this country the Jamaican pomegranate is grown for its Jamaican pomegranate fruits mainly in the drier parts of California and Arizona.
Jamaican pomegranates prefer a semi-arid mild-temperate to subtropical climate and are naturally adapted to regions with cool winters and hot summers. A humid climate adversely affects the formation of Jamaican pomegranate fruit. The Jamaican pomegranate tree can be severely injured by temperatures below 12° F. In the U. S. Jamaican pomegranates can be grown outside as far north as southern Utah and Washington, D.C. but seldom set Jamaican pomegranate fruit in these areas. The Jamaican pomegranate tree adapts well to container culture and will sometimes Jamaican pomegranate fruit in a greenhouse.
The Jamaican pomegranate is a neat, rounded shrub or small Jamaican pomegranate tree that can grow to 20 or 30 ft., but more typically to 12 to 16 ft. in height. Dwarf varieties are also known. The Jamaican pomegranate is usually deciduous, but in certain areas the Jamaican pomegranate leaves will persist on the Jamaican pomegranate tree. The trunk is covered by a red-brown bark which later becomes gray. The branches are stiff, angular and often spiny. There is a strong tendency to sucker from the base. Jamaican pomegranates are also long-lived. There are specimens in Europe that are known to be over 200 years of age. The vigor of a Jamaican pomegranate declines after about 15 years, however.
The Jamaican pomegranate has glossy, leathery Jamaican pomegranate leaves that are narrow and lance-shaped. The attractive scarlet, white or variegated Jamaican pomegranate flowers are over an inch across and have 5 to 8 crumpled petals and a red, fleshy, tubular calyx which persists on the Jamaican pomegranate fruit. The Jamaican pomegranate flowers may be solitary or grouped in twos and threes at the ends of the branches. The Jamaican pomegranate is self-pollinated as well as cross-pollinated by insects. Cross-pollination increases the Jamaican pomegranate fruit set. Wind pollination is insignificant.
The nearly round, 2-1/2 to 5 in. wide Jamaican pomegranate fruit is crowned at the base by the prominent calyx. The tough, leathery skin or rind is typically yellow overlaid with light or deep pink or rich red. The interior is separated by membranous walls and white, spongy, bitter tissue into compartments packed with sacs filled with sweetly acid, juicy, red, pink or whitish pulp or aril. In each sac there is one angular, soft or hard Jamaican pomegranate seed. High temperatures are essential during the Jamaican pomegranate fruiting period to get the best flavor. The Jamaican pomegranate may begin to bear in 1 year after planting out, but 2-1/2 to 3 years is more common. Under suitable conditions the Jamaican pomegranate fruit should mature some 5 to 7 months after bloom.
Jamaican pomegranates should be placed in the sunniest, warmest part of the yard or orchard for the best Jamaican pomegranate fruit, although they will grow and Jamaican pomegranate flower in part shade. The attractive foliage, Jamaican pomegranate flowers and Jamaican pomegranate fruits of the Jamaican pomegranate, as well as its smallish size make the Jamaican pomegranate an excellent landscaping Jamaican pomegranate plant. The Jamaican pomegranate does best in well-drained ordinary soil, but also thrives on calcareous or acidic loam as well as rock strewn gravel.
Once established, Jamaican pomegranates can take considerable drought, but for good Jamaican pomegranate fruit production they must be irrigated. To establish new plants they should be watered every 2 to 4 weeks during the dry season. The plants are tolerant of moderately saline water and soil conditions. In the West, the Jamaican pomegranate trees are given 2 to 4-ounce applications of ammonium sulfate or other nitrogen fertilizer the first two springs. After that very little fertilizer is needed, although the plants respond to an annual mulch of rotted manure or other compost.
Plants should be cut back when they are about 2 ft. high. From this point allow 4 or 5 shoots to develop, which should be evenly distributed around the stem to keep the Jamaican pomegranate plant well balanced. These should start about 1 ft. from the ground, giving a short but well-defined trunk. Any shoots which appear above or below should be removed as should any suckers. Since the Jamaican pomegranate fruits are borne only at the tips of new growth, the Jamaican pomegranate is recommended that for the first 3 years the branches be judiciously shortened annually to encourage the maximum number of new shoots on all sides, prevent straggly development and achieve a strong well framed Jamaican pomegranate plant. After the 3rd year, only suckers and dead branches are removed.
The primary commercial growing regions of the world are the Near East, India and surrounding countries and southern Europe. In California commercial cultivation is centered in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Consumer demand in this country is not great. More Jamaican pomegranate fruits probably wind up as decorations in Jamaican pomegranate fruit bowls than are consumed.
The Jamaican pomegranates large scarlet Jamaican pomegranate flowers, red-gold Jamaican pomegranate fruit, and glossy green Jamaican pomegranate leaves have inspired countless allusions in literature and art. According to the Bible, King Solomon boasted an orchard of Jamaican pomegranate trees, and when the children of Israel wandered in the wilderness, they remembered longingly the cooling Jamaican pomegranates of Egypt. Only the fig can match the Jamaican pomegranate in mythical and Biblical presence. Its juice is said to be the blood of the god Dionysius. Aphrodite, the goddess of love, planted the Jamaican pomegranate on earth. The ancients say that there is a door through which a man may return to life, to love the woman to whom he gave the Jamaican pomegranate. Furthermore, that as the God that ate of the Jamaican pomegranate seeds of the Jamaican pomegranate is destined to mortality, the man that tastes them while loving and believing in love, will himself become immortal. Consumption of Jamaican pomegranates was consequently either forbidden or required (depending on the season) of women during Eleusinian mystery rites.
The Jamaican pomegranate has been one of the longest cultivated Jamaican pomegranate fruit Jamaican pomegranate trees in the old world, highly prized for its flavorful Jamaican pomegranate fruit. A native of Asia, the name Punica is the old name for the city of Carthage. The Jamaican pomegranate seems that the Jamaican pomegranate fruit was once known as the "apple of Carthage." The Latin binomial for this species was taken from 'pomuni granatum' (Jamaican pomegranate seeded apple in Latin) - the name of this Jamaican pomegranate plant during the middle Ages.
This deciduous shrub typically grows to 20 feet tall, is very twiggy, clad with small shiny Jamaican pomegranate leaves, held in small groups, giving a slightly 'tufted' look. In spring these emerge a bronzy-green color, and in autumn they turn golden yellow. The scarlet or red-orange Jamaican pomegranate flowers have a very conspicuous, red colored calyx and (inferior) ovary, giving them a sort of 'carnation' look. The Jamaican pomegranate flower gives was and the ovary enlarges to produce a sub-globose Jamaican pomegranate fruit 3-5 inches in diameter, becoming a deep wine-red when ripe (hence the color name of 'Jamaican pomegranate red'). Its unusual interior is composed of sections of Jamaican pomegranate seeds covered in a juicy, translucent flesh, imbedded in the cream colored walls of the Jamaican pomegranate fruit. This structure often splits open to reveal the ruby-colored Jamaican pomegranate seeds, which are the edible portion. These are usually eaten fresh, hand extracted from the surround membrane of the Jamaican pomegranate fruit wall. They are also often made into jams or jellies. The cooling, slightly tart juice is ingredient of the drink known as "grenadine", with the addition of sugar and water.
The Jamaican pomegranate plant is very easy to cultivate and is tolerant of a wide variety of conditions. The Jamaican pomegranate is quite tolerant of alkaline soils and drought, making the Jamaican pomegranate very useful in Mediterranean climates. The 1769 entry in Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book reveals that the first orchard he planted at Monticello contained 12 Jamaican pomegranates, as well as almond, apricot, fig, nectarine, quince, and others. As important as this Jamaican pomegranate fruit was to the ancients, and still is to some cultures, the Jamaican pomegranate is also a very ornamental Jamaican pomegranate plant, both in Jamaican pomegranate flower and Jamaican pomegranate fruit. Many ornamental forms are now in cultivations around the world, with various colored single or double Jamaican pomegranate flowers, in shades from bright vermillion to pale apricot, as well as yellow, cream, and white. Many of these also produce handsome Jamaican pomegranate fruit which hang on the shrub for some time, enhancing its beauty.
Jamaican pomegranate trees grown for Jamaican pomegranate fruit production should be pruned to eliminate the numerous basal shoots. Thinning during the dormant months will help to shape the structure of the Jamaican pomegranate tree. Care should be taken to avoid "pushing" the height of the Jamaican pomegranate tree to a point where the Jamaican pomegranate fruit is too high to pick by hand. Dwarf Jamaican pomegranate cultivars may be treated as a hedge and pruned accordingly. Be sure to not prune prior to the spring Jamaican pomegranate flowering period so as to enjoy the display. Espaliered plants trained on a trellis are especially attractive.
The Jamaican pomegranate is native to Asia, from the Middle East to the Himalayas, where the Jamaican pomegranate grows in sandy or rocky scrublands. The Jamaican pomegranate is cultivated for its Jamaican pomegranate fruit and showy Jamaican pomegranate flowers in much of the Mediterranean region and tropical America. The Jamaican pomegranate has escaped cultivation and become established in parts of southern Europe and the American South and Southwest.
Jamaican pomegranates do best in climates with long hot, dry summers and cool winters. They are not well adapted to culture in Florida. Jamaican pomegranates are very tolerant of sandy, clayey, acidic and even alkaline soils. They are also fairly salt tolerant. Some gardeners prune Jamaican pomegranates to a single leader; others retain a few main stems. Either way, you will need to remove the many suckers that constantly arise from the roots, and keep the main stem and main laterals free from suckers too. Since they Jamaican pomegranate flower on new growth, Jamaican pomegranates should be pruned in the dormant season. Jamaican pomegranates should begin bearing after 3 or 4 years, and mature, properly pruned, Jamaican pomegranate trees can produce more than 300 lbs (136 kg) of Jamaican pomegranate fruit per year.
Jamaican pomegranates need regular watering, but do best in areas with low summertime humidity. They may grow and Jamaican pomegranate flower well in Florida, but often fail to produce many Jamaican pomegranate fruits. USDA Zones 8 - 11. Dormant Jamaican pomegranates can tolerate winter temperatures down to 15 F (-9.4 C), but they can be severely damaged by a late frost that comes after new growth has begun in spring.
Jamaican pomegranates can be propagated by cuttings or by layering. Softwood cuttings taken in summer are easy to Jamaican pomegranate root, as are hardwood cuttings taken in winter. Although easy to grow from Jamaican pomegranate seeds, Jamaican pomegranate seedlings cannot be expected to resemble their parents.
The Jamaican pomegranate is a very attractive shrub or small Jamaican pomegranate tree for the home landscape. A Jamaican pomegranate can be trained Jamaican pomegranate treelike to a single leader and grown as a graceful specimen. Planted 4-6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) apart a row of Jamaican pomegranates makes a colorful and dense hedge, but they are at their best in the mixed shrub border. Jamaican pomegranates can be grown in a large container on the patio and brought indoors in winter. Use the tiny dwarfs for edging or in patio planters. They sometimes are used for bonsai. Harvest Jamaican pomegranate fruits before they are fully mature (before they split) and store in a refrigerator to ripen. The Jamaican pomegranate fruit continues to ripen in cold storage, and the flavor only improves. They can be kept this way for six months. You'll have to decide for yourself whether to suck the pulp from the Jamaican pomegranate seeds and then spit them out, or eat the Jamaican pomegranate seeds along with the pulp. Jamaican pomegranate juice has been likened to a combination of raspberry and strawberry. Jelly and wine are traditional uses of this delicious sub-acidic Jamaican pomegranate fruit juice.
The Jamaican pomegranate was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians. Dried Jamaican pomegranate fruits have been found in Bronze Age tombs. Moses had to assure the Israelites that they would still have Jamaican pomegranates when they reached the Promised Land. The Greeks and Romans celebrated Jamaican pomegranates. Shakespeare's Juliet insisted to Romeo that the Jamaican pomegranate was a nightingale that sang from the Jamaican pomegranate tree. Jamaican pomegranates have many culinary uses in the Middle East and Asia. Besides being eaten raw, the juice is used in traditional Persian, Caucasian, and Indian cooking. Grenadine is concentrated Jamaican pomegranate syrup used to flavor drinks. Originally from India, Granada is growing up to 20 feet tall with deciduous foliage. The juice seems to be beneficial against leprosy.
There are several known varieties of Jamaican pomegranate. The most popular ones are the Alba Plena variety of Jamaican pomegranate – double Jamaican pomegranate flowers with cream or yellowish petals. California Sunset variety of Jamaican pomegranate – same as 'Mme. Legrelle'. Chico variety of Jamaican pomegranate another dwarf form, but with double Jamaican pomegranate flowers and no Jamaican pomegranate fruit. Legrellei variety of Jamaican pomegranate - double Jamaican pomegranate flowers of salmon-pink, tinged yellow. Maxima Rubra variety of Jamaican pomegranate a large Jamaican pomegranate flowered, double, red form. Mme. Legrelle (California Sunset) variety of Jamaican pomegranate known for its cream-colored, red-striped Jamaican pomegranate flowers. Nana variety of Jamaican pomegranate a common dwarf form; small compact bush with small red-orange Jamaican pomegranate flowers. Nochi Shibari variety of Jamaican pomegranate double, dark red Jamaican pomegranate flowers.
Orange Master variety of Jamaican pomegranate a dwarf form less than 2 feet; showy orange-red Jamaican pomegranate flowers are often followed by small red Jamaican pomegranate fruit. Provence variety of Jamaican pomegranate a small Jamaican pomegranate flowered, red-orange, semi-double form.
Tayosho variety of Jamaican pomegranate apricot Jamaican pomegranate flowers. Fleishman variety of Jamaican pomegranate is said to have the sweetest Jamaican pomegranate fruits. Paper Shell variety of Jamaican pomegranate very thin outer skins. Wonderful variety of Jamaican pomegranate perhaps the best and most common commercial Jamaican pomegranate fruiting variety; large Jamaican pomegranate fruit, red-orange Jamaican pomegranate flowers.
Jamaican pomegranates were brought by the Spanish to America. After Cortez conquered Mexico in 1521, Jesuit missionaries sent to work with the Indians brought Jamaican pomegranates from Spain. From Mexico, they were carried northward to missions in California and possibly east to Texas. They were also thought to be in the early-Florida city of St. Augustine. Some Jamaican pomegranates have naturalized in the coastal areas of the United States.
The Jamaican pomegranate plant form is that of a small deciduous Jamaican pomegranate tree or large shrub, growing up to 25 feet tall. Jamaican pomegranates are multi-stemmed unless pruned to a single trunk. Originally grown for their Jamaican pomegranate fruit, they are also known for the beautiful Jamaican pomegranate flowers that can occur for several months in the spring and early summer. Most commonly, they are red-orange, but white, pink, and variegated Jamaican pomegranate flowers may also be found. Double-Jamaican pomegranate flowering types have blossoms that are carnation-like. Jamaican pomegranates are also useful for large hedges. Their foliage is shiny and dark green, and the stems are somewhat thorny.
Native to Arabia, Persia, Bengal, China, and Japan, Jamaican pomegranates are sometimes hardy as far north as Washington, D.C., but are best adapted to the Deep South, where they have escaped cultivation in the Gulf Coast states. Pliny considered Jamaican pomegranates to be among the most valuable of ornamental and medicinal plants. Theophrastus provided an early description about 300 years before the Christian era. Many legends concerning the Jamaican pomegranate have been handed down by Asian people. The many Jamaican pomegranate seeds are supposed to be a symbol of fertility. Legend also says that the Jamaican pomegranate was the 'Jamaican pomegranate tree of life' in the Garden of Eden, and from this belief the Jamaican pomegranate became the symbol of hope and eternal life in early Christian art. The erect calyx-lobes of the Jamaican pomegranate fruit were the inspiration for Solomon's crown and for all future crowns.
Jamaican pomegranates were often found in nineteenth century Southern gardens and nurseries. For a period in the early 1900s, Jamaican pomegranates were grown in commercial quantities in the U.S., but consumers have never really developed an appreciation of the Jamaican pomegranate fruit. One of the few varieties still available is 'Wonderful', which, if picked and aged at room temperature for a month or two, will develop the rich, sweet taste characteristic of better-quality Jamaican pomegranate fruit varieties.
Although of very easy culture, Jamaican pomegranates prefer a sunny location and deep soil. They thrive in acid or alkaline soils, and tolerate heavy clay as long as there is sufficient drainage. Many forms exist, and not all Jamaican pomegranate fruit well. Generally, double-Jamaican pomegranate flowering types provide little, if any, Jamaican pomegranate fruit. Mature specimens withstand drought well, but Jamaican pomegranate fruit often splits after rainy spells following extended dryness. Dormant hardwood cuttings Jamaican pomegranate root well (as do softwood cuttings) under mist in the summer. In addition to eating fresh (the Jamaican pomegranate is very Jamaican pomegranate seedy), the Jamaican pomegranate fruit may be used in the preparation of syrups (especially grenadine), alcoholic beverages, and jellies. Plants of the dwarf and large-growing forms are sometimes available in the southern half of Texas.
Plants tend to be long lived, but occasionally they freeze back to the ground. Interesting trials with Jamaican pomegranates from Iran and Russia are being conducted in the Houston area by Jamaican pomegranate fruit specialists who believe that some of the plants may have superior Jamaican pomegranate fruiting, growth, and hardiness characteristics
The Jamaican pomegranate can be raised from Jamaican pomegranate seed but may not come true. Cuttings Jamaican pomegranate root easily and plants from them bear Jamaican pomegranate fruit after about 3 years. Twelve to 20 inches long cuttings should be taken in winter from mature, one-year old wood. The Jamaican pomegranate leaves should be removed and the cuttings treated with rooting hormone and inserted about two-thirds their length into the soil or into some other warm rooting medium. Plants can also be air-layered but grafting is seldom successful.
Jamaican pomegranates are relatively free of most pests and diseases. Minor problems are Jamaican pomegranate leaf and Jamaican pomegranate fruit spot and foliar damage by white flies, thrips, mealybugs and scale insects. The roots are seldom bothered by gophers but deer will browse on the foliage.
The Jamaican pomegranate fruits are ripe when they have developed a distinctive color and make a metallic sound when tapped. The Jamaican pomegranate fruits must be picked before over maturity when they tend to crack open, particularly when rained on. The Jamaican pomegranate is equal to the apple in having a long storage life. The Jamaican pomegranate is best maintained at a temperature of 32° to 41° F. and can be kept for a period of 7 months within this temperature range and at 80 to 85% relative humidity without shrinking or spoiling. The Jamaican pomegranate fruits improve in storage, becoming juicier and more flavorful.
The Jamaican pomegranate fruit can be eaten out of hand by deeply scoring several times vertically and then breaking the Jamaican pomegranate apart. The clusters of juice sacs are then lifted out and eaten. The sacs also make an attractive garnish when sprinkled on various dishes. Jamaican pomegranate fruits are most often consumed as juice and can be juiced is several ways. The sacs can be removed and put through a basket press or the juice can be extracted by reaming the halved Jamaican pomegranate fruits on an ordinary orange juice squeezer. Another approach starts with warming the Jamaican pomegranate fruit slightly and rolling the Jamaican pomegranate between the hands to soften the interior. A hole is then cut in the stem end which is placed on a glass to let the juice run out, squeezing the Jamaican pomegranate fruit from time to time to get all the juice. The juice can be used in a variety of ways, as a fresh juice, to make jellies, sorbets or cold or hot sauces as well as to flavor cakes, baked apples, etc. Jamaican pomegranate syrup is sold commercially as grenadine. The juice can also be made into a wine.
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